Purified Terephthalic Acid is the organic compound with formula C6H4(COOH)2. This white solid is a commodity chemical, used principally as a precursor to the polyester PET, used to make clothing and plastic bottles.
Polyester fibers based on PTA provide easy fabric care, both alone and in blends with natural and other synthetic fibers. Polyester films are used widely in audio and video recording tapes, data storage tapes, photographic films, labels and other sheet material requiring both dimensional stability and toughness.
Terephthalic acid is used in paint as a carrier.
Terephthalic acid is used as a raw material to make terephthalate plasticizers such as dioctyl terephthalate and dibutyl terephthalate.
It is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a raw material for certain drugs.
Phthalic anhydride is the organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2O. It is the anhydride of phthalic acid. Phthalic anhydride is a principal commercial form of phthalic acid. It was the first anhydride of a dicarboxylic acid to be used commercially. This colourless solid is an important industrial chemical, especially for the large-scale production of plasticizers for plastics.
The primary use of TCC’s phthalic anhydride (PA) is as a chemical intermediate in the production of plastics from vinyl chloride. Phthalate esters that function as plasticizers are derived from phthalic anhydride. Phthalic anhydride has another major use in the production of polyester resins and other minor uses in the production of alkyd resins used in paints and lacquers, certain guys, insect repellents, and urethane polyester polyols.Phthalic anhydride has also been used as a rubber scorch inhibitor and retarder.
The second largest outlet for PA is in unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) which are usually blended with glass fibers to produce fiberglass-reinforced plastics. Principal markets are construction, marine and transportation.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging and labeling, textiles (e.g., ropes, thermal underwear and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes.
An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene, it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents, bases and acids.
Polypropylene has a relatively slippery “low energy surface” that means that many common glues will not form adequate joints. Joining of polypropylene is often done using welding processes.
Paraxylene, also known as PX or P-Xylene, is an aromatic hydrocarbon compound, derived particularly from benzene. Paraxylene is a colorless, toxic, sweet-smelling, and highly flammable chemical at room temperature .
It is found naturally in petroleum and coal tar. It is produced separately through the processes of adsorption and desorption wherein PX is selectively adsorbed from the raw material, Mixed Xylene (MX).
PX is used as the raw material for PTA and DMT, which are the raw materials for polyester fibers, films, and bottle resins used for mineral water bottles and soft drink bottles.Paraxylene or P-Xylene is an isomer of xylene compound, derived from benzene.
Polyethylene or polythene is the most common plastic. The annual global production is around 80 million tonnes. Its primary use is in packaging (plastic bags, plastic films, geomembranes, containers including bottles, etc.).
Polyethylene is an incredibly useful commodity plastic. Because of the diversity of PE variants it is incorporated into a wide range of applications. Unless it is required for a specific application, we don’t typically use Polyethylene as part of the design process at Creative Mechanisms. For some projects, a part that will eventually be mass produced in PE can be prototyped with other more prototype-friendly materials like ABS.
Maleic anhydride is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O. It is the acid anhydride of maleic acid. It is a colorless or white solid with an acrid odor. It is produced industrially on a large scale for applications in coatings and polymers.
Around 50% of world maleic anhydride output is used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins (UPR).
Chopped glass fibers are added to UPR to produce fibreglass reinforced plastics which are used in a wide range of applications such as pleasure boats, bathroom fixtures, automobiles, tanks and pipes.
Diethylene glycol (DEG) also known as ethylene diglycol is an organic compound. The compound is colorless, almost odorless, poisonous and a hygroscopic liquid with a sweetish taste. It is soluble in water, alcohol, ether, acetone and ethylene glycol.
Diethylene glycol is used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins, polyurethanes, and plasticizers. DEG is used as a building block in organic synthesis, e.g. of morpholine and 1,4-dioxane. It is a solvent for nitrocellulose, resins, dyes, oils, and other organic compounds. It is a humectant for tobacco, cork, printing ink, and glue. It is also a component in brake fluid, lubricants, wallpaper strippers, artificial fog solutions, and heating/cooking fuel. In personal care products (e.g. skin cream and lotions, deodorants), DEG is often replaced by selected diethylene glycol ethers. A dilute solution of diethylene glycol can also be used as a cryoprotectant; however, ethylene glycol is much more commonly used. Most ethylene glycol antifreeze contains a few percent diethylene glycol, present as an inadvertent byproduct of ethylene glycol production.
Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN. It is a colorless volatile liquid, although commercial samples can be yellow due to impurities. In terms of its molecular structure, it consists of a vinyl group linked to a nitrile. It is an important monomer for the manufacture of useful plastics such as polyacrylonitrile. It is reactive and toxic at low doses.
Acrylonitrile is used principally as a monomer to prepare polyacrylonitrile, a homopolymer, or several important copolymers, such as styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), and other synthetic rubbers such as acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR). Dimerization of acrylonitrile affords adiponitrile, used in the synthesis of certain polyamides. Small amounts are also used as a fumigant. Acrylonitrile and derivatives, such as 2-chloro-acrylonitrile, are dienophiles in Diels-Alder reactions. Acrylonitrile is also a precursor in the industrial manufacture of acrylamide and acrylic acid.
2-Ethylhexanol (abbreviated 2-EH) is a branched, eight-carbon chiral alcohol. It is a colorless liquid that is poorly soluble in water but soluble in most organic solvents. It is produced on a massive scale for use in numerous applications such as solvents, flavors, and fragrances and especially as a precursor for the production of other chemicals such as emollients and plasticizers. It is encountered in natural plant fragrances, and the odor has been reported as “heavy, earthy, and slightly floral” for the R-enantiomer and “a light, sweet floral fragrance” for the S enantiomer.
Almost all 2-ethylhexanol manufactured is used as a precursor for the synthesis of the diester bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer. Because it is a fatty alcohol, its esters tend to have emollient properties. For example, the sunscreen octocrylene contains a 2-ethylhexyl ester for this purpose.
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibers for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fiber for engineering resins.
It may also be referred to by the brand name Dacron; in Britain, Terylene; or, in Russia and the former Soviet Union, Lavsan.
The majority of the world’s PET production is for synthetic fibers (in excess of 60%), with bottle production accounting for about 30% of global demand. In the context of textile applications.
Because PET is an excellent water and moisture barrier material, plastic bottles made from PET are widely used for soft drinks (see carbonation). For certain specialty bottles, such as those designated for beer containment, PET sandwiches an additional polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) layer to further reduce its oxygen permeability.
Fumaric acid was first prepared from succinic acid. A traditional synthesis involves oxidation of furfural (from the processing of maize) using chlorate in the presence of a vanadium-based catalyst. Currently, industrial synthesis of fumaric acid is mostly based on catalytic isomerisation of maleic acid in aqueous solutions at low pH. Maleic acid is accessible in large volumes as a hydrolysis product of maleic anhydride, produced by catalytic oxidation of benzene or butane.
The chemical properties of fumaric acid can be anticipated from its component functional groups. This weak acid forms a diester, it undergoes additions across the double bond, and it is an excellent dienophile.
Uses: Food, Medicine, Psoriasis, polyester resins, polyhydric alcohols, metal organic frameworks.
Isophthalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO2H)2. This colorless solid is an isomer of phthalic acid and terephthalic acid. The main industrial uses of purified isophthalic acid are for the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) resin and for the production of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and other types of coating resins.
Aromatic dicarboxylic acids are used as precursors (in form of acyl chlorides) to commercially important polymers, e.g. the fire-resistant material Nomex. Mixed with terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid is used in the production of PET resins for drink plastic bottles and food packaging. The high-performance polymer polybenzimidazole is produced from isophthalic acid.Also, the acid is used as an important input to produce insulation materials.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is composed of 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring with 1 hydrogen atom attached to each. As it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon.
Benzene is used mainly as an intermediate to make other chemicals, above all ethylbenzene, cumene, cyclohexane, nitrobenzene, and alkylbenzene. More than half of the entire benzene production is processed into ethylbenzene, a precursor to styrene, which is used to make polymers and plastics like polystyrene and EPS. Some 20% of the benzene production is used to manufacture cumene, which is needed to produce phenol and acetone for resins and adhesives. Cyclohexane consumes ca. 10% of the world’s benzene production; it is primarily used in the manufacture of nylon fibers, which are processed into textiles and engineering plastics. Smaller amounts of benzene are used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, explosives, and pesticides.
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol), also called dimethyl carbinol or, isopropanol, is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O or C3H7OH or CH3CHOHCH3 (sometimes represented as i-PrOH). It is a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. As an isopropyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, it is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol, where the alcohol carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms, sometimes shown as (CH3)2CHOH. It is a structural isomer of 1-propanol. It has a wide variety of industrial and household uses, and is a common ingredient in chemicals such as antiseptics, disinfectants and detergents.
Isopropyl alcohol in particular is popular for pharmaceutical applications, it is presumed due to the low toxicity of any residues. Some isopropyl alcohol is used as a chemical intermediate. Isopropyl alcohol may be converted to acetone, but the cumene process is more significant. It is also used as a gasoline additive.
Ethylene Glycol, Mono
Methyl ethyl ketone
Methyl isobutyl ketone
Methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate
Polyethylene linear low density
Polyethylene low density